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New research from Washington State University shows that CBD inhibits nicotine metabolism. The study tested how CBD and its main metabolite 7-hydroxycannabidiol* affect cell samples from human liver tissue and other cell cultures. The mission, says Philip Lazarus, WSU professor of pharmaceutical sciences and lead author of the study, is to “reduce the harm of smoking, which is not from nicotine per se, but from all the carcinogens and other chemicals that are in tobacco smoke.”  

Study finding: CBD inhibits one of the key enzymes (CYP2A6) involved in nicotine metabolism. This means it could help tobacco users curb the urge to smoke cigarettes. Slowing the drug’s metabolism could result in delaying the craving for the next puff.   

 Even low CBD concentrations affect nicotine metabolism  

Further research has shown that over 70% of nicotine is metabolized by this enzyme (CYP2A6) in most tobacco users. The effect of CBD on CYP2A6 appears to be quite strong. The results suggest that its activity is inhibited by 50% at already relatively low CBD concentrations (1 μM).  

The same team, led by Lazarus, is currently developing a clinical trial to investigate the effects of CBD on blood nicotine levels in smokers:  

  • Treatment group: smokers taking CBD 
  • Placebo group: smokers taking placebo 
  • Observation period: 6-8 hours    


Philip Lazarus emphasizes that further research is needed to confirm these effects in humans and to determine the dosage. But the results of the current study are already very promising.  

*Main metabolite is the substance CBD converts into in the body. 


Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2023, 36, 2, 177–187. Publication Date: January 10, 2023 


A twin study from the USA proves the lack of association between legalized cannabis use and the occurrence of psychiatric disorders.   

No link between cannabis legalization and psychiatric disorders 

In a longitudinal study of 4,043 North American twins, researchers from the United States and Finland found that cannabis legalization in the United States had no significant impact on a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood.   

The subjects were first studied in adolescence and again between the ages of 24 and 49. They lived in states where cannabis use is legalized (40 percent) as well as those where it is prohibited.   

Another finding of the study was that the twins who lived in a state with legalized recreational use were more likely to use cannabis but, in turn, less likely to abuse alcohol or be dependent than the sibling pairs in states with cannabis prohibition.   

The study authors conclude that cannabis legalization is not associated with other “adverse outcomes” and encourage further empirical research.   

Cannabis legalization in the USA 

The U.S. has the largest population of cannabis users compared to any other country. Recreational use of cannabis for adults is already legalized in 22 states, with more to be voted on in the future. In October 2022, President Joe Biden announced that there will be sentencing relief for individuals incarcerated for simple cannabis possession – a symbolic act for U.S. states and the international community to support the decriminalization of adult-use cannabis.   

However, restrictions on the cannabis market by the federal government still exist. Regulations and laws prevent cannabis businesses from using banking services, listing on U.S. exchanges, trading across state lines, and importing or exporting products.   

Now, President Joe Biden has ordered decriminalization and a review of the legal status of cannabis. There is hope that cannabis will be reclassified for commercial sale in the near future. 



Zellers, S. M., Ross, J. M., Saunders, G. R. B., Ellingson, J. M., Walvig, T., Anderson, J. E., Corley, R. P., Iacono, W., Hewitt, J. K., Hopfer, C. J., McGue, M. K., & Vrieze, S. (2023). Recreational cannabis legalization has had limited effects on a wide range of adult psychiatric and psychosocial outcomes. Psychological Medicine, 1–10. 


Headaches are among the most common types of pain in many Western countries. A new study from Canada gives hope to sufferers: cannabinoids appear to significantly alleviate the symptoms of headache patients.  

The study surveyed a total of 200 pain patients at a Calgary clinic about their use of cannabis preparations. 34 percent of respondents reported regular use – mainly in form of liquid cannabis preparations or by inhaling cannabis flowers. The preparations were used both to prevent pain and to combat acute conditions.   

Cannabis reduces pain intensity and has a preventive effect 

The results are promising: nearly two-thirds of regular users described reduced pain intensity, and about 30 percent reported that their headaches were less frequent when they took cannabinoids. The study authors concluded “a high individual benefit of cannabinoids in the treatment of headache.” In the future, they hope to see more controlled studies and a broader data base for the use of pharmaceutical cannabis in the treatment of severe headaches.
In Canada, cannabis is legalized for both medical and recreational use.   

Melinyshyn AN, Amoozegar F. Cannabinoid Use in a Tertiary Headache Clinic: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Can J Neurol Sci. 2022 Nov;49(6):781-790. doi: 10.1017/cjn.2021.215.


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